The Alameda was a long tree-lined avenue, leading north from the formal gardens of the Panama-California Exposition's Southern California Counties Building, providing access to the numerous agricultural-related displays situated along its length. The curving avenue contained benches for seating, allowing exposition visitors to enjoy the temperate climate of Southern California while viewing the many outdoor exhibits. At the Alameda's south end was the large and commodious Cristobal Café, operated by Levy's Restaurant, where many official banquets took place during the course of the exposition. Located immediately north of the Cristobal Café was the exposition Fire Station, housing a trained crew of fire-fighters and the most modern fire-fighting equipment. The spacious Southern California model farm and citrus grove covered the area north and east of the Fire Station, and were neighbored on their north side by the International Harvester Company Building and tractor demonstration field, and the Lipton Tea Pavilion and Gardens. The Nevada State Building, Standard Oil Company Building, Open-Air Theatre, and Tractor Exhibit Building were situated along the remainder of the Alameda, which extended to the exposition's north entrance.
Friday, February 27, 2009
The Japanese Tea Pavilion and Gardens were situated north of the Panama-California Exposition's Botanical Building, and covered an area of approximately one acre. The main entrance to the pavilion and gardens was reached by a pathway leading north from the Botanical Gardens, which crossed a wide arched bridge leading directly to the tea pavilion. The gardens contained a meandering waterway and pond, spanned by a steeply-arched red-lacquered "Bridge of Long Life"; and were also scattered with rocks, stepping stones, stone lanterns, and many varieties of meticulously-pruned trees and plants. The tea pavilion was based on the design of Buddhist temples of the fourteenth century, and was an ornate rectangular-shaped structure surmounted by a shingled roof containing gables at each end. The decorated gables featured carvings of Hoho birds and Sachi fish, which were symbols of long life and happiness. A broad raised veranda surrounded the structure, and the interior consisted of a large tea-room with a coffered ceiling, decorated with numerous patterned rice-paper panels.
Thursday, February 26, 2009
Situated across from the Washington State Building, the Montana State Building stood on the south side of the Panama-California Exposition's Via de los Estados. The building was designed in a Spanish-Mission style, and borrowed design elements from exposition structures located along El Prado. A central terra-cotta tile-roofed hall, with decorative end-gables, was flanked by flat-roofed wings at either side, each featuring a pergola-covered side entrance. The arched main portal borrowed its surrounding ornamentation from the arcade entrance pavilions, located along El Prado; while the parapet ornamentation, placed on the structure's two flanking wings, was borrowed from the front arcade of the Southern California Counties Building. The interior of the building housed the many exhibits assembled by the State of Montana.
Wednesday, February 25, 2009
The Washington State Building was located on the north side of the Panama-California Exposition's Via de los Estados, adjacent to the New Mexico State Building. The structure was designed in an eclectic California-Mission style, and featured arches, buttresses, deep-set windows, and a terra-cotta tile roof. Curving facades, flanked by domed slope-walled towers, were situated at the building's west end; each containing five narrow arched-windows and projecting wood vigas. The building was entered through a Mission-style arch, which opened into a small patio; and an open terrace, placed on the building's north side, overlooked the lushly planted Palm Canyon. The interior was filled with the comprehensive exhibits from the State of Washington.
Tuesday, February 24, 2009
The New Mexico State Building was located on the west side of the Panama-California Exposition's Via de los Estados, and overlooked Cabrillo Canyon, the city, and the bay. The unique pueblo-style structure was based on the design of the San Esteban del Rey Church, located within the Acoma Pueblo in the State of New Mexico. The large adobe-colored flat-roofed building featured an imposing bell-tower flanked wing on the south side, and a two-story open-balconied wing on the north. The two wings were inter-connected by a single-storied central hall, entered through a deep portal, behind which was situated a spacious open-air patio. The walls of the building sloped outward at their bases, and were relieved by rectangular deep-set window openings. Wood vigas extended through the walls at the roof level, and canales were placed at various points along the parapets. Between the two towers of the south wing was situated a narrow second-floor balcony, constructed of rough-hewn wood and topped by two finials in the style of Native-American crosses. The building's interior contained a large exhibit hall for New Mexico's state exhibits, in addition to several reception and meeting rooms.
Monday, February 23, 2009
The Utah State Building was located south of the Kansas State Building, along the east side of the Panama-California Exposition's Via de los Estados. Designed in an eclectic Spanish-Renaissance style, the building consisted of a large flat-roofed main hall, entered through an imposing arched portal, with small towers located on either side of a tile-roofed overhang. Smaller wings extended north and south from the main hall, and also featured flat roofs, tile overhangs, and small towers. Within the building were located numerous exhibits from the State of Utah.
Sunday, February 22, 2009
Located west of the Alameda and Santa Clara Counties Building, on the south side of the Panama-California Exposition's Via de los Estados, was the Mission-style Kansas State Building. Designed as a rectangular-shaped exhibition building, featuring an arched entrance portal, large unadorned arched windows, and a terra-cotta tile roof, the structure was one of the most architecturally plain of the exposition's six state buildings. Apparently this overall plainness resulted in a redesign within several months of the exposition's opening, and the end result was an architecturally original Mission-style structure. An open-beamed arcade was added along the building's north and west sides, in addition to an ornamented entrance portal and a domed Mission-style tower. A wooden stairway, located within the arcade's western portion, provided access to a roof-deck which opened to the tower; an interior stairway then led to the tower's upper portion, where panoramic views of the surrounding area could be had. The building contained the small, but interesting, exhibit from the State of Kansas.
Saturday, February 21, 2009
Located immediately west of the Spreckels Organ Pavilion, on the south side of the Panama-California Exposition's Via de los Estados, was the Alameda and Santa Clara Counties Building. Designed in a simple Spanish-Colonial style, the tile-roofed building featured a gabled and ornamented entrance portal, surmounted by a deeply-set arched window. The plain walls of the structure contained numerous pairs of flat-arched windows, with a heavy cornice located above. The interior housed fine displays of products from the California counties of Alameda and Santa Clara.
Friday, February 20, 2009
The Spreckels Organ Pavilion was located on the south side of the Panama-California Exposition's Plaza de los Estados, and faced north toward the Esplanade and the Plaza de Panama. The permanent pavilion, constructed entirely of hollow terra-cotta tile, housed the great outdoor organ, presented to the exposition and the citizens of San Diego by brothers John and Adolph Spreckels. Harrison Albright was commissioned to design the Renaissance-style Plateresque-ornamented building and its curving Corinthian-columned peristyles; and Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart was hired as official exposition organist. The organ, featuring four manuals, sixty-two speaking stops, and 3,400 pipes, was constructed by the Austin Organ Company of Hartford, Connecticut. The pavilion consisted of a central gable-topped structure, containing a delicately ornamented proscenium fronted by a large concrete stage. At each side of the proscenium were placed large bronze tablets, recording the donation of the building and the names of the persons instrumental in the gift and its construction. Within the proscenium was located the massive organ, with its gilded pipes and large polished-wood console; fronted by a rolling corrugated-steel door, which could be lowered to protect the instrument from the elements. Extending from the east and west sides of the central structure were matching peristyles, with small pavilions located at each end. The flat-roofed peristyles, featuring Corinthian columns, surmounted by rooftop walks lined with balustrades and ornate finials, offered unparalleled views of San Diego and the Pacific Ocean. By night the pavilion was outlined with a myriad of 15-watt electric bulbs; being the only major structure at the exposition not illuminated by indirect lighting. Immediately east of the Spreckels Organ Pavilion was located the Salt Lake Route and Union Pacific Building, designed in a corresponding classic-style, faced with Doric columns.
Thursday, February 19, 2009
The Kern and Tulare Counties Building was located on the west side of the Panama-California Exposition's Esplanade, directly across from the San Joaquin Valley Counties Building. Overlooking Palm Canyon to the west, the building was designed in the style of the urban Spanish-Colonial homes found throughout Mexico. The structure featured an ornamented entrance centered along a plainly designed ground-floor; above which was located an ornamented second-floor, containing numerous balconied windows, square columns, and a decorative cornice and parapet. Extending south-west from the building was a semi-circular arcade, leading to the Alameda and Santa Clara Counties Building and the Via de los Estados. Exhibits from the California counties of Kern and Tulare occupied the interior of the structure.
Wednesday, February 18, 2009
The San Joaquin Valley Counties Building was located on the east side of the Esplanade, south of the Panama-California Exposition's central Plaza de Panama. The long florid facade of the building represented the civic style of architecture found in Mexico during the Churrigueresque period; with the central entrance consisting of a highly ornamented portal, containing a large arched window fronted by a broad balcony. The structure's lower story was smooth-walled, punctured by small Moorish-style windows; while the upper story was a riot of ornamentation. A pavilion was located at each end of the building, featuring large balconied windows, topped by decorative gables. An arcade at the building's north end connected to the arcade of the adjacent Foreign and Domestic Arts Building; while an open terrace extended along the east side, overlooking Spanish Canyon. The interior contained numerous exhibits from the counties of California's San Joaquin Valley, and was beautifully decorated with grains, cereals, and grasses arranged in decorative patterns around a variety of farming scenes.
Tuesday, February 17, 2009
The Southern California Counties Building was located on the north side El Prado, adjacent to the Panama-California Exposition's Plaza de Balboa. The building was designed in an eclectic Spanish-Colonial style, featuring a large central structure with flanking tile-roofed wings, which extended south and enclosed an arcaded patio, paved with rough Mission-tile. The patio was entered on its south side through a heavily ornamented portal, which formed the building's main entrance. The north wall of the patio featured a two-storied arcade, similar to one found within the patio of the Convento de San Agustin, located in Queretaro, Mexico. The upper portion of the arcade was enclosed with large arched windows, surrounded by Spanish Baroque ornamentation and topped with a heavy cornice. Located at the north angles of the patio were two Spanish Baroque towers, each featuring semi-circular balconies, decorative finials, and blue, black, and yellow tiled domes. On the north side of the building was a smaller tile-paved patio, located within a tile-roofed wing, overlooking a large formal garden with hedge-framed planter beds, filled with numerous varieties of flowers. At the building's west side, facing Calle Cristobal, a grand staircase led to an imposing Baroque-style entrance, with an ornamented balcony situated above. The spacious structure housed exhibits from the seven counties of Southern California, in addition to a large lecture hall, and several reception and meeting rooms.
Monday, February 16, 2009
Extending north from the Panama-California Exposition's Varied Industries Building was the large Churrigueresque-style Food Products Building. Located on the west of side of the Calle Cristobal, the structure resembled a Spanish-Colonial church; and featured a heavily ornamented entrance flanked by a pair of blue and yellow tile-domed bell towers, topped with wrought-iron finials. A terra-cotta tile-roofed wing projected north from the towers, and a plain-walled wing to the south, which contained decorative arches at the first level with heavily-framed windows above. On an axis with the towers was the exterior simulation of a chapel, culminating in a semi-circular apse on the west side of the building. The apse consisted of arched windows separated by heavily ornamented buttresses; with a simulated sanctuary entrance, topped by a bell-turret, placed on the south side. At the base of the apse, facing the Botanical Gardens, was an ornamented tablet dedicated to the memory of Fray Junipero Serra, founder of the Franciscan Missions of California. The tablet contained a bas-relief of Father Serra, surrounded by Churrigueresque ornamentation, and the inscription: "To the memory of Fray Junipero Serra and his fellow pioneers, whose saintly devotion and dauntless courage established Christianity and civilization in Alta California, 1769 - 1915". The interior of the building was filled with exhibits from numerous manufacturers of edible products.
Sunday, February 15, 2009
Located on the north side of El Prado, the Varied Industries Building stood directly opposite the Panama-California Exposition's Commerce and Industries Building, to which it contrasted in both style and ornament. The El Prado facade of the building was designed in the Churrigueresque style, and contained two heavily ornamented entrances, connected by a two-storied tile-roofed arcade. The arcade was based on those found within the patios of Queretaro, Mexico, and featured a second-floor loggia of six arches, with balustrades, fluted columns, and an ornamented frieze. Each of the building's two entrances contained three broad archways, separated by ornamented columns. At the second-floor level of the entrances were two ornately framed balconies and a large rose-window, surrounded by an abundance of heavy Churrigueresque ornamentation. At the east end of the structure was an ornamented facade, featuring allegorical figures of a religious nature. The facade was flanked by wrought-iron railed balconies, and enhanced by a Spanish-Renaissance belfry, placed above the facade's northern end. At night numerous light-standards illuminated the building, and created deep shadows upon the walls from the heavy ornamentation. The interior of the structure contained a variety of industrial products, displayed by domestic exhibitors. Extending north from the Varied Industries Building was the inter-connected Food Products Building, which featured several of the same design elements.
Saturday, February 14, 2009
The Commerce and Industries Building was located on the south side of El Prado, immediately east of the Panama-California Exposition's Foreign and Domestic Arts Building. The extremely ornate eclectic Renaissance structure featured two tile-roofed entrance bays and a heavily ornamented corner tower. The building's entrances were based on the design of the Casa Consistorial, in Palma de Mallorca, Spain; and contained triple-arched vestibules above which were located ornate balconies with intricate wrought-iron railings. Tile-roofed overhangs, featuring brightly colored friezes of blue, red, green, and gold, extended over both entrances, and were supported by caryatids in the form of nude women. The Rococo-ornamented corner tower contained two semi-circular iron-railed balconies, topped by a decorative cornice and ornate finials. The rear portion of the building was less heavily ornamented, to harmonize with the adjacent Foreign and Domestic Arts Building, and overlooked a small park and Spanish Canyon, which extended to the south. The interior of the building housed numerous commercial and industrial exhibits, displayed by domestic firms.
Friday, February 13, 2009
The Botanical Gardens occupied a large rectangular area in front of the Panama-California Exposition's Botanical Building; and were enclosed by the Home Economy & Sacramento Valley Counties Buildings on the west, and the Varied Industries & Food Products Buildings on the east. Extending north from El Prado were two main walkways giving access to the Botanical Gardens, between which was located a large rectangular lagoon, known as La Laguna de las Flores, measuring 193-feet long by 43-feet wide. At the head of the lagoon was a balustraded bridge, crossed by a transverse walk. At the west end of this walkway was situated a Roman-style pergola, fronted by a tiled terrace with a low iron railing; while at the walkway's east terminus was located a balustraded terrace, backed by a tile-roofed arcade connected to the Food Products Building. Also located near each end of the transverse walkway were raised circular basins, each containing an ornately designed Baroque fountainhead. The Botanical Gardens were surrounded by a thick growth of eucalyptus trees, and planted with spacious lawns, shrubbery, palms, and many flowering plants. A low hedge of blue lobelia framed La Laguna de las Flores, and the bordering walkways were lined with Italian-style benches and ornate bronze-green light standards. The view south across the lagoon, toward El Prado, revealed a mirrored reflection of a tile-roofed colonnade and the neighboring towers of the Commerce and Industries & Foreign and Domestic Arts Buildings.
Thursday, February 12, 2009
The Botanical Building was located north-east of the Panama-California Exposition's Home Economy Building, and faced El Prado at the end of a long rectangular lagoon. The steel-framed permanent building measured 250-feet in length by 75-feet wide, and was the world's largest wood-lath covered structure. The entrance consisted of two small domed pavilions, connected by a triple-arched arcade, set in front of a central lath-covered dome topped by an octagon-shaped lantern. Immediately in front of the building's entrance arcade was located a small lagoon, filled with lotus and water lilies, abutted by a balustraded bridge ornamented by large decorative urns. Arched windows, deeply set into a stuccoed facade, surrounded the structure; and a spacious glass-roofed conservatory extended north from the building's large central dome. Within the main redwood-lath covered structure were planted a variety of palms, ferns, bamboo, vines, flowers, and many other plants found throughout Central and South America; while in the heated conservatory was situated a large pool filled with delicate water-lilies, surrounded by numerous varieties of exotic tropical plants.
Wednesday, February 11, 2009
The Foreign and Domestic Arts Building was located on the south side of El Prado, across from the Home Economy Building, and faced the Panama-California Exposition's Plaza de Panama. The T-shaped building was ornamented in the Plateresque style, and was loosely based on the design of the Hospice de Santa Cruz located in Toledo, Spain. Two similar entrance pavilions were located on the building's north and west sides; and a delicately ornamented square tower was located at the north-west corner, balancing the tower on the Home Economy Building. Each of the entrance pavilions consisted of a heavily ornamented archway, with a balcony located above. At each side of the balcony was situated an abundantly ornamented arched window, covered by a wood grille, and topped with a pediment at the building's cornice level. Centered over the entrance, and extending above the cornice, was a large stylized coat-of-arms representing the Pan-American Union. The corner tower featured an open pavilion, with each of its four walls containing a central arch flanked by rectangular openings. The upper portions of the tower's walls, surrounding the openings, were covered in delicate flower-shaped ornamentation, and surmounted by a finial-topped parapet. In contrast, the building's south wing and east facade were designed in a simple Moorish style, consisting of plain walls and unadorned windows. At the north-east corner of the building was located a second square tower, balancing a tower on the adjacent Commerce and Industries Building. Exhibits from Japan occupied the majority of the building's interior, in addition to exhibits from several European countries.
Tuesday, February 10, 2009
The Home Economy Building was located on the north side of El Prado, immediately east of the Panama-California Exposition's Plaza de Panama. Surrounded by arcades on two sides, the building's overall design represented the urban palaces found in Mexico City, with a corner tower modeled on that of the Palacio de Monterey, in Salamanca, Spain. Two ornamented pavilions, located on the west and south sides of the building, formed the building's entrances. Over each entrance was situated a square heavily-ornamented and bracketed balcony, flanked by simple iron-railed balconies at each side; with a richly-decorated parapet extending around each pavilion's top edge. The building's corner tower consisted of a square open pavilion, with three balustraded arches on each of its four sides, and cartouches at the corners. A medallion-decorated parapet surmounted the tower's cornice; and two pedimented windows, topped with finials, decorated the tower's lower walls. Within the building were located exhibits relating to modern conveniences for the home; consisting of numerous electrical appliances, as well as a complete model kitchen.
Monday, February 9, 2009
Prominently located at the north end of the Panama-California Exposition's Plaza de Panama was the imposing Sacramento Valley Counties Building. The general design of the structure was Italian, covered with ornamentation in the Spanish Baroque style. Decorative columns, scrolls, medallions, and cartouches covered the facade; and seven large archways opened into a vestibule extending the length of the building. The vestibule opened at each end into pergola-topped arcades, connecting to the Science and Education Building on the west, and the Home Economy Building on the east. Situated above each of the vestibule's seven archways was a decorative iron-railed balcony, with similar balconies placed in the pavilions at both ends of the structure; and a richly colored and gilded overhanging cornice surmounted the building's walls, topped by a hipped terra-cotta tile roof. An expansive concrete terrace, reached by a broad flight of steps from the Plaza de Panama, fronted the vestibule, and was also used as a stage for the Exposition Band and other performances. At night the building's facade was illuminated by four triple-globed lighting standards, located upon the terrace; and the interior of the vestibule was indirectly lit by incandescent lighting hidden in the cornices surrounding the arched and vaulted ceiling. Inside the structure were extensive exhibits, representing the agricultural counties of California's Sacramento Valley.
Sunday, February 8, 2009
The Plaza de Panama was the center of the Panama-California Exposition's daily activities and entertainment, and was designed after the manner of the central town plazas found throughout Spain and Mexico. The large asphalt-paved space was bisected by El Prado, and opened on the south side to the Esplanade and the Plaza de los Estados. Surrounded by buildings on its three other sides, the Plaza de Panama was flanked on the west by the Science and Education and Indian Arts Buildings; and on the east by the Home Economy and Foreign and Domestic Arts Buildings. At the plaza's north end was located the Sacramento Valley Counties Building, fronted by a broad flight of stairs and two tall flagstaffs. Heavy wooden benches, backed by Blackwood acacia trees and ornate bronze-green light-standards, lined the curbs; and ornate entrance pavilions gave access to the arcades surrounding the plaza. The main attraction of the Plaza de Panama were the hundreds of tame pigeons, which could be hand-fed with bird-seed sold by Spanish-garbed vendors; and visitors could also pose for postcard photographs, seated in a Electriquette, surrounded by pigeons. The woven-wicker Electriquettes were battery-powered electric vehicles, which could be rented by the hour, enabling visitors to ride in comfort around the exposition grounds. Also wandering the plaza were various entertainers and minstrels. The Exposition Band gave daily performances on the steps of the Sacramento Valley Counties Building, and a large colorfully-dressed group of Spanish troubadours performed throughout the plaza with song and dance. Colorful canvas hangings were placed on the balconies surrounding the plaza; and a decorative blue & yellow striped canvas awning was occasionally raised over the steps of the Sacramento Valley Counties Building for special performances. The famous Liberty Bell was also displayed for three days in the Plaza de Panama, during November of 1915, on its return trip to Philadelphia from the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco.
Saturday, February 7, 2009
Located on the north side of El Prado, immediately east of the California State Building, was the Panama-California Exposition's Science and Education Building. Designed with a mixture of Spanish Renaissance, Moorish, and Churrigueresque architecture, the building's main facade faced El Prado and featured two tile-roofed bays extending over the arcade. Each bay was of a Spanish Renaissance design, with an ornamented cornice, and contained three decoratively-framed Italian Renaissance windows. Between these bays was located the heavily-ornamented main entrance to the building, formed by an accentuated archway of the arcade, and topped by a small pavilion with a terra-cotta tile roof. Beyond this entrance, behind the arcade, was situated a lushly landscaped patio, containing a lawn and an abundance of tropical plants and trees, as well as two small faun-head fountains of classic Roman design. At the south-east corner of the patio was placed an octagonal Moorish stair-tower, surmounted by a black and yellow tiled turret. A second landscaped patio occupied an area at the corner of the Plaza de Panama and El Prado, and featured an additional faun-head fountain, and a small ornate balcony set high upon the wall. The building's ornate east entrance was designed in a Churrigueresque style, and based on the Iglesia de San Francisco in Puebla, Mexico. Within the building were located numerous scientific and educational exhibits, many of which were provided by the Smithsonian Institution.