The Palace of Education was originally constructed as the New Mexico State Building for the 1915-16 exposition, and was located on the west side of the Avenida de Naciones, which passed by the western side of the House of Pacific Relations. For the California-Pacific International Exposition the Pueblo-style building was doubled in size by the addition of a large wing at the rear of the structure, and the interior was completely remodeled. The building's former open-air patio was enclosed, and became the educational exhibit's Theme Room. At the center of the square Theme Room was placed an octagonal fountain, created by sculptor Frederick Shweigardt, representing "The Four Cornerstones of American Democracy"; while the room's rear wall featured a large mural, painted by local artist Belle Baranceanu, depicting "The Progress of Man". Exhibits in the building represented all aspects of education, and included displays from the University of California system and various State Colleges, in addition to exhibits illustrating business education, industrial education, physical education, art education, education of the deaf and blind, journalism, navigation, and many other educational fields. At the rear of the building was located a large cactus garden, containing many varieties of cacti and other desert plants.